White Paper: Networked Interactive Multimedia Training

Table of Contents

1. The Core Requirements of a Successful Training System
1.1 Overview
1.2 New training methodologies
1.2.1 Accelerated learning
1.2.2 Just-in-Time training
1.3 Training: the competitive edge
1.3.1 The value of human resources
1.3.2 Training and profitability
1.3.3 Limitations of conventional training systems
1.4 The changing face of training
1.4.1 Changes in job descriptions and requirements
1.4.2 Changes in the workforce
1.5 Conclusion: The core requirements of a successful training system
2. The Benefits of Networked Interactive Multimedia Training
2.1 Overview
2.2 Why is networked interactive multimedia training the optimal training solution?
2.2.1 Advantages for learners
2.2.2 Advantages for the training department
2.2.3 Advantages for management
2.3 Summary: The benefits of networked interactive multimedia training
2.3.1 For trainees:
2.3.2 For trainers:
2.3.3 For management:
3. The Benefits from an ROI Perspective
3.1 Overview
3.2 Why is a new approach to cost-benefit analysis necessary?
3.3 How can the cost of training be measured and analyzed?
3.3.1 Trainee costs
3.3.2 Instructional delivery costs
3.3.3 Instructional content costs
3.3.4 Management costs
3.4 How can the benefits of training be measured and analyzed?
3.5 Conclusion: Evaluating the ROI on a networked interactive multimedia training system
4. References
 
 

1. The Core Requirements of a Successful Training System

1.1 Overview

In many organizations, formal training remains either physically isolated from the workplace when it is delivered in classrooms and training centers, or severely constrained by the inflexibility of textbooks, videocassettes, and CD-ROMs. Additional limiting factors (such as the need to schedule access to instruction or instructional media in advance) further widen the gap between training and day-to-day work processes. These characteristics are not in line with current business training needs arising from leaner, flatter organizations, high-speed communications, rapidly changing information, diffused decision making, and team-based management. Traditional training systems also fail to reflect current knowledge about the importance of self-directed learning, Just-in-Time training, and on-the-job instruction [1].

The high-performance workplace - where increases in productivity are sustained over time - demands a training system that supports a flexible 'learning' organization which can respond and adapt quickly to change [2]. Training information, like all other information types, must be delivered, shared, and integrated in a seamless manner. These needs can now be satisfied due to a recent innovation in server technology which allows for interactive multimedia training incorporating learner interactivity and high-quality video to be distributed over a network, providing an opportunity for implementing effective training systems on an organization-wide scale. This development means that training need no longer be an isolated and relatively inflexible entity within an organization; instead, it can become an integral part of that organization's ability to competitively respond to market change.

In order to assess a training strategy's viability and maximize the return on training investments, a broad understanding of the forces which have altered the demands on training is required. This section of the white paper addresses the core requirements of a successful training system in today's business environment.

1.2 New training methodologies

New approaches to training have been developed in response to changes in the workforce and the workplace. These methodologies utilize developments in psychological and organizational research to improve upon the effectiveness of instruction and enlarge the range of organizational needs that training systems can address.

1.2.1 Accelerated learning

Recent research in educational technology [3,4] has identified several factors that determine the efficiency with which employees acquire new skills and knowledge. This research indicates that learning can occur at a greatly accelerated rate as compared with traditional approaches if a training system possesses certain critical characteristics:


 
 

When the method of instruction combines these three characteristics, the synergistic results far exceed those of traditional methods. For example, reports [11,12] indicate that after a two-week period, only 10-20% of the information communicated in a classroom is remembered. When learners individually use computer-based multimedia incorporating sound, high-quality video, and interactivity, retention rates vary from 50 to 95%. Furthermore, training time is frequently half that necessary using traditional approaches. Training systems that possess all three characteristics of accelerated learning enable employees not only to learn more quickly, but also to remember and apply more of what they have learned.
 
 


 
 

1.2.2 Just-in-Time training

Performance problems (and training needs) can arise from the inability of an employee to perform a specific task at hand (such as creating a chart in a computer spreadsheet application), or they can be associated with a more general requirement for skill upgrading that will be applicable to a broad range of current and future tasks (such as interpersonal and time management skills). The strength of the match between training and task is a prime factor in determining the impact of training on current and future workplace performance. A common constraint on the effectiveness of classroom education in groups is the disparity between what is communicated in the classroom to the group as a whole and the actual tasks that are encountered by each individual employee in the workplace. This constraint can also reduce the effectiveness of videotapes and CD-ROMs delivering generic content which employees can only access as a whole rather than enabling them to quickly identify and receive a single yet critical piece of information.

New training strategies that are geared towards quickly solving employees' current performance problems are collectively referred to as Just-in-Time training. Many companies already utilize aspects of Just-in-Time training within their organizations:

Both of these partial solutions suffer from limitations. Although computer software manufacturers have recognized both the need for and effectiveness of Just-in-Time online help functions in business software, and lowered their documentation costs by transferring the majority of their tutorial information from expensive print-based documents to the software application itself, employees frequently need more instruction than the manufacturer provides. As well, this solution provides no support for employees with performance problems that are not software-related. Although on-the-job training with a peer is a possible alternate approach, it can result in costly interruptions, distractions, and poor work habits. In addition, many employees with expertise are unable to effectively transmit their knowledge and skills to others. From a cost standpoint, this approach can be as, or more, expensive than classroom training, due to the many hidden costs [13]. Another fundamental drawback of this informal approach is that it creates variance in business policy and procedures, which can easily undermine corporate efficiency. An organization that is striving towards a 'best practice' model, wherein optimal processes are executed by all employees, cannot rely on a training solution that does not support the institutionalization of 'best practice' within both the training environment and the workplace.

New training technologies utilizing computer networks can rapidly deliver effective training content directly to the desktop or work environment, and the selection of the training content can be made quickly by employees themselves in response to their individualized needs and the tasks at hand. These technologies create training systems that can systematically address both Just-in-Time and conventional training within one integrated solution.

1.3 Training: the competitive edge

1.3.1 The value of human resources

"As every advanced economy becomes global, a nation's most important competitive asset becomes the skills and cumulative learning of its workforce." (Reich, Harvard Business Review) [14]

"Never before has there been such a focus on the human resources in our society and never before have we so seriously questioned the performance of our learning institutions, training programs in the workplace and the basic skills required of individuals." (Geis, As Training Moves Toward The Next Decade) [15]

In recent years, corporate strategy for maximizing productivity has focused on reducing direct labor costs through downsizing, increased automation, and the reengineering of inefficient processes. As a result of these interventions, individual employees are now required to quickly accomplish tasks that previously required groups of workers and lengthy time periods. These paradigm shifts in organizational structure and function, however, have also had an effect on the amount and quality of information employees must have access to in order to perform effectively. Overhead costs - the costs associated with such processes as problem-solving and organizational communication of information - are where labor and related costs have become concentrated. The importance of these 'overhead' processes has also been heightened by the rapidly changing market environment that corporations must now compete within; having the best information and making optimal decisions based on this information are the two prerequisites for profitability and survival. In order to reduce overhead costs and be able to respond quickly to market changes, an organization must have employees with refined and flexible skill bases. These realities have forced a reevaluation of training's role and importance in the workplace.

1.3.2 Training and profitability

An efficient and effective formal training system is now a mission-critical aspect of a corporation's overall strategy, and this development is reflected in industry budgeting trends. A recent survey of 444 private-sector organizations [16] determined that training budgets have increased net of inflation in past years, and a substantial mean increase of 11% was expected in the future by these firms. Even in sectors hardest hit by the economic slowdown during the early 1990's, training was not a primary target for budgetary cutbacks [17]. Given the prevalence of cost-cutting measures across all areas of today's corporate environment, it is noteworthy that expenditures on training are actually on the rise. This counter trend indicates that companies perceive a concrete and justifiable value in developing their internal human resources. This perception is not unwarranted:

1.3.3 Limitations of conventional training systems

The decision faced by corporations is no longer whether or not to implement a training system; the decision now is to select the optimal training system to match organizational needs. All forms of training, as strategic interventions, possess several generic advantages [20]: Conventional training systems, however, based on lecture-oriented classrooms and textbooks, or even on more modern delivery media such as videotapes and CD-ROMs, are predicated on an instructional model that is in many ways insufficient to meet current demands [21]. Without utilizing new developments in networking technology, these approaches incur several critical disadvantages:

1.4 The changing face of training

Although some of the causes underlying the inadequacy of conventional training systems are the result of inherent limitations, new factors have also emerged that limit the ability of these systems to effectively meet the needs of modern organizations. These factors stem from changes in the nature of the workforce and the workplace.

1.4.1 Changes in job descriptions and requirements

To reach new levels of productivity and performance, complexity is needed. For example, office automation enables one administrative assistant using a personal computer to do the work that previously required four people: an office manager, a secretary, a clerk typist, and a bookkeeper. In order to satisfactorily perform these disparate functions at a heightened level of productivity and performance, the administrative assistant requires the support of training in both these four skill areas and in the computer software that supports the work tasks [22]. These types of changes in job performance requirements have been noted in numerous studies: In response to these developments, training systems must focus on producing multi-skilled employees. The goal of multi-skilling is to increase employees' flexibility and productivity and thereby allow both the individual employee and the corporation as a whole to adapt more quickly to organizational and market changes. For example, a multi-skilled production worker can fix a broken piece of machinery rather than calling in someone else to fix it, reducing downtime and increasing productivity [28]. In today's workplace, however, it is difficult to accurately forecast all the skills an employee must possess in order to be efficient and effective. The speed with which employees' roles and responsibilities change requires a training system that can adapt to these changes fluidly, and deliver training information that is directly related to the performance of the employee's present tasks. Effective multi-skilling can only occur as the product of sustained incremental training interventions that are directly linked to each individual employee's current needs.

Another essential goal of effective training is the upgrading of employees' interpersonal skills. These 'soft skills' are increasingly in demand as effective collaboration and teamwork have become critical elements to organizational efficiency. The primary reason for loss of employment has been cited as a lack of these 'soft skills' rather than an inability to perform any specific skill [29]. Interpersonal skill development is one of the many areas in which interactive multimedia with high-quality video footage has had demonstrated success [30].

1.4.2 Changes in the workforce

Studies have also noted changes in the nature of the workforce: The key trend associated with these changes in the workforce is that employees will increasingly be life-long learners. The traditional sequence of formal school-based education followed by a predetermined career path is no longer the norm. In its place, adults will iterate cycles of learning and applying skills in response to workplace demands, and continuously develop personal knowledge bases for the duration of their professional lives. Employers must support this essential life-long learning process with a flexible and powerful training system, as employees will not only increasingly rely on it, they will also increasingly demand it.

1.5 Conclusion: The core requirements of a successful training system

Limitations on the effectiveness of conventional training solutions stem from three entrenched beliefs that are no longer in line with current work environments [33]: These three beliefs must be replaced by three new tenets that reflect the changed demands on, and of, training: In order to realize these goals, a successful training system must:

2. The Benefits of Networked Interactive Multimedia Training

2.1 Overview

Networked interactive multimedia training systems utilize an advanced delivery platform for training information that harnesses the combined power of three technologies:

Networks: Computer local area networks (LAN) and wide area networks (WAN) allow the delivery of training and other information types directly to the desktop workstation. By merging the training environment with the work environment, the training system can address such organizational needs as Just-in-Time training, as well as substantially reduce the costs associated with the delivery of conventional types of training material.

Interactivity: Interactive training software dynamically reacts to the trainee's actions, allowing for instructional delivery that is tailored to and optimized for each individual user. It also provides opportunities for practicing acquired skills within the training system, which is critical for retention and transfer of skills from training to the workplace.

Multimedia: Instead of restricting instruction to primarily unimodal delivery (i.e., textbooks, lectures) with the occasional audiovisual aid, multimedia-capable training systems can utilize text, graphics, animation, audio, and high-quality video. This allows the training content to be delivered in the most effective mode or combination of modes for comprehending and retaining that type of content. The different learning styles of trainees can also be accommodated for by using multimodal delivery.

These separate technologies have been developed independent of one another over the past few decades. Basic forms of interactivity have been a part of computer-based training since the advent of drill-and-practice systems in the 1960's. Extensive academic and commercial research and development has resulted in modern interactive software products, eliminating the wasted time and other inefficiencies of generic, unresponsive instruction. Multimedia-capable computer systems are largely the product of the personal computer revolution that took place during the 1980's, and now both office and home computers can support audiovisual content. Multimedia has itself evolved to include high-quality video, which enables it to increase its scope to training in interpersonal skills as well as complex technical instruction. In the early 1990's, interactive multimedia training gained widespread acceptance, despite the limitations of CD-ROMs and other storage media - such as the need to either physically deliver the CD-ROM to the employee requesting the training, or else purchase one copy of the software for every employee who may need access to it. This constrained the impact interactive multimedia training could have within an organization, as the number of potential beneficiaries was necessarily limited by the number of copies of the instructional product and their accessibility. Although computer networks have long been an intrinsic component of modern corporate information systems, bandwidth limitations related to the network transmission of multimedia data have until recently prevented the delivery of interactive multimedia training to every desktop in an organization. As cost-effective hardware solutions now exist for interactive multimedia training delivered through existing LANs and WANs, the merger of these powerful technologies has become a reality, allowing for the examination of networked interactive multimedia training systems as a present-day solution.

This section of the white paper addresses the critical advantages of networked interactive multimedia as a training delivery platform.

2.2 Why is networked interactive multimedia training the optimal training solution?

 

 
 


 
 

2.2.1 Advantages for learners

Whenever an employee requires training in order to complete a task or upgrade skills, there are three categories of factors that determine the effectiveness and efficiency with which a training delivery platform can satisfy the training requirement. These categories are access to training, instructional format, and quality of learning.

Access to training refers to the ease with which an employee can access the exact information required. This involves both selecting the appropriate training content and receiving/retrieving it.

Networked interactive multimedia training provides critical advantages for employee access to both Just-in-Time and conventional training through:

Instructional format refers to the framework within which the training is delivered. The components of this framework are the interactions between the employee, the training content, and the learning environment.

Networked interactive multimedia training systems enable an optimal instructional format through:

Quality of learning refers to the results of the training as determined by the increased performance of the employee in the workplace. Training must be understood, remembered, and applied by the employee in order to have a significant impact on performance.

Networked interactive multimedia training systems ensure quality training through:


 


 
 

2.2.2 Advantages for the training department

A critical advantage of networked interactive multimedia training systems is that they allow an organization without an established training department to implement a turnkey solution that will satisfy the training requirements of their employees. For those organizations with formal training systems already in place, networked interactive multimedia training offers important benefits for training departments which impact all three phases of the training process: Another key benefit is realized by the training department when the training system automates the delivery of instructional material and the collection of usage and performance data:
 


 
 

2.2.3 Advantages for management

The advantages of networked interactive multimedia training systems discussed above are articulated from the perspectives of the trainers and trainees using the system. These advantages combine to create the following benefits at the managerial level: Furthermore, a networked interactive multimedia system offers benefits beyond those that are directly related to training:

2.3 Summary: The benefits of networked interactive multimedia training

2.3.1 For trainees:

2.3.2 For trainers:

2.3.3 For management:

3. The Benefits from an ROI Perspective

3.1 Overview

An unfortunately all-too-common management attitude towards training expenditures positions training as a necessary expense that is rarely evaluated in terms of Return on Investment (ROI). This has largely been due to the complexity associated with gathering and analyzing data on training costs and procedures, and linking this data with metrics that accurately reflect changes in workplace performance caused by training. Despite this complexity, increased competition in the marketplace and reduced operating budgets have created a necessity for greater accountability in training systems. As well, the critical importance of training in maintaining and refining a corporation's ability to respond to market changes requires a flexible and adaptive training system whose efficiency can no longer be assumed. Effective evaluation has been cited by training departments and management alike as the essential development that must occur to ensure and refine training's positive impact on profitability [34].

To rectify this accountability gap, the necessary first step is to accurately assess the costs associated with training systems. Assessment must comprehensively include not only readily apparent direct costs, such as training department staff and delivery systems, but also the hidden costs that arise from such factors as lost productivity during classroom training.

The second step is to integrate assessment of training's organizational benefits within the formal training system. Networked interactive multimedia training systems, by automatically gathering data on such factors as training time per employee, performance on interactive simulations and testing instruments, and types of training content accessed, allow management and training departments to optimize the training system to the requirements of their organization. This data can also be linked to productivity and performance metrics in order to evaluate training's impact. By assessing this impact, the benefits of training can be determined and integrated into a complete cost-benefit analysis that brings the accountability of training in line with other aspects of corporate operations.

This section of the white paper addresses the benefits of networked interactive multimedia training from a ROI perspective.

3.2 Why is a new approach to cost-benefit analysis necessary?

From its survey analyses of U.S. businesses, the Business Research Group has determined that interactive multimedia training, although highly successful as a corporate training technology, has heretofore been limited primarily to isolated desktops or small work groups, with a concomitant restriction on the scope of its effectiveness: "most of the corporate workforce doesn't have access to it because of cost and the enormous bandwidth needed to distribute multimedia applications over networks" [35]. With recent developments in server technology, the limitations of cost and bandwidth have been greatly reduced, and this creates a need to readdress ROI within this context. In order to accurately assess the ROI for training systems in general and networked interactive multimedia training in particular, shortcomings in common approaches to training cost-benefit analysis must first be resolved. This necessity was noted in a Conference Board of Canada report [36] which stated that "the benefits to be gained from using new technology in training, such as lower costs, individualized instruction, more timely delivery and more convenient scheduling are too powerful to ignore. However, it does appear that at the present time, current methods for budgeting may actually be hindering the complete exploitation of new technology in training."

For example, many training ROI models presume fixed cost categories (such as student costs, instructor costs, and the costs of training facilities), and different training systems are evaluated and compared on the basis of these categories. Advances in technology, however, can substantially alter the validity of the categorization itself. Conventional training is delivered primarily through seminars which often last for several days, whereas in the case of networked interactive multimedia training systems, much of the training will occur in short Just-in-Time sessions of a few minutes in response to a current performance problem. As no dedicated classrooms, training centers, or travel expenditures are required for networked systems that deliver instruction straight to employees' workplaces, several cost categories are also no longer relevant. Furthermore, a video-capable network server that functions over the corporation's current LAN or WAN adds substantial functionality to the existing communication infrastructure, positively benefiting aspects of the corporation's operations that are not related to employee training. An organization that does not evolve its ROI model to incorporate these developments runs the risk of inaccurate assessments.

3.3 How can the cost of training be measured and analyzed?

The most obvious and easily tracked costs associated with training are the funds paid for a specific training program or system. Leaders in training ROI evaluation have established, however, that these expenses rarely equal more than 10% of training's total cost. Instead, "the major costs of training activities relate to people's time - to salary costs for people conducting or participating in a specific training program" [37]. A comprehensive training ROI model must at minimum encompass each of these four areas: trainee costs, instructional delivery costs, instructional content costs, and management costs.
 
 


 

3.3.1 Trainee costs

Trainee costs (costs associated with employees as trainees/learners) are often overlooked when calculating the cost of training, yet they often represent more than 80% of the cost of a training program [38]. Changing training variables such as course length has a direct impact on these costs, and therefore will significantly lower the cost of the overall training system.

Trainee cost factors are generally calculated by summing the employees' salaries during training with lost opportunity costs. Lost opportunity costs (the value of the reduced productivity and/or time lost due to the employee's absence from the workplace) are complex to measure and analyze, but some heuristics have been developed. If temporary personnel are utilized to replace absent employees, the salary of the temporary personnel multiplied by a factor representing their lower efficiency (generally a value between 1.2 and 1.5) can be incorporated into the costing model here. If replacement is handled internally, the effect of the organizational disruption on productivity should be estimated for all the individuals involved. If there is no replacement of absent employees, then the missing productivity of the individual can be calculated by estimating the individual's impact on the organization's annual gross revenue factored by the period of time consumed by training. This approach is especially effective for sales personnel, as their impact on gross revenue is relatively easy to calculate from extant sales data.

Networked interactive multimedia training minimizes trainee cost factors through:

3.3.2 Instructional delivery costs

Instructional delivery costs arise from the nature of the delivery system used to bring trainees and instructional content together during training. In the case of classroom instruction, these costs include instructors' salaries, classroom facility costs, and travel expenses. Training systems that utilize instructional media (including print-based documents, videotapes, CD-ROMs, and networked systems) rather than instructors incur costs from the implementation, usage, and maintenance of the delivery system. Many delivery systems also have hidden costs associated with the delivery process, such as the usage of consumable materials by trainees during training.

Networked interactive multimedia training systems minimize instructional delivery cost factors through:

3.3.3 Instructional content costs

Instructional content cost factors include the costs to internally develop or acquire the instructional material used in the training system, as well as the cost to maintain and revise this content, amortized over the expected lifespan of the course.

Networked interactive multimedia training systems minimize instructional content cost factors through:


 

3.3.4 Management costs

Management cost factors are the costs associated with gathering data on the training system and evaluating its effects on the organization's productivity, as well as managing the fulfillment of regulatory and legal requirements associated with training such as mandatory safety certification.

Networked interactive multimedia training systems minimize management cost factors through:

3.4 How can the benefits of training be measured and analyzed?

The benefits of training must be formally evaluated in order to link them to cost factors within a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis. The difficulty in establishing this link is primarily the result of difficulties in collecting training process data and deriving workplace performance metrics that training can potentially impact. As networked interactive training automates and formalizes the collection of training process data, a new opportunity exists for statistically analyzing this data against a broad range of performance metrics to quantitatively explore interrelationships. For example, differences between various departments or teams within an organization can be examined from the perspective of amount and type of training consumed, as well as performance on simulations and testing instruments. This data can then be categorized and compared with changes in productivity and performance at the levels of the individual employee, the work group, the department, and the organization as a whole. Management can then use these analyses to guide decision-making on training and related issues with much greater confidence than was possible within the conventional, intuition-based paradigm.

Performance metrics that have been identified in the professional and academic literature [49,50] as being relevant for analytical evaluation with training interventions include measures based on:

The Gartner Group has conducted studies which show that the average savings of companies adopting interactive multimedia training is 64% [51].These training systems have experienced successful implementations in contexts ranging from management training to entry-level skills in sales and customer service, as well as specific technical skills. For example, Shell International, Federal Express, and Pacific Bell have all linked their interactive multimedia training systems to reduced accident rates for their drivers [52]. Increases in sales have been identified for salespeople at Apple [53] as well as smaller organizations [54]. The U.S. Air Force has stated that the troubleshooting accuracy of technicians trained using interactive multimedia increased by 90%; over a three to five year period, the Air Force expects a 20 to 25-fold ROI [55]. As more accurate evaluation of training systems becomes the norm due to automated data collection and analysis through computer networks, the number of success stories will continue to rise.

3.5 Conclusion: Evaluating the ROI on a networked interactive multimedia training system

One of the key benefits of a comprehensive training ROI model is the ability to derive a checklist of essential networked interactive multimedia training system components that must be present in order to obtain maximal ROI. This allows organizations to quickly identify whether any given system will satisfy their present and future needs. Questions that should be asked of the training system vendor include:
Hardware that cannot utilize an organization's existing LAN/WAN dramatically increases both initial and overhead costs.
High-quality video is essential if the training system is to be able to positively impact interpersonal and complex technical skill development.
For the training system to have a powerful effect on an organization, it must be able to support variable user loads without negatively impacting the speed of information delivery; this is especially critical if the system is integrated into an existing LAN/WAN, as slowdowns may affect the entire network.
In many situations it is often necessary to train as many employees as possible in a short period of time. With some training systems, it becomes very expensive to provide support for more than 25 simultaneous users and course content must be replicated on the server to meet the needs of additional students.
A system that is initially installed to service a single training center with 25 users may eventually be required to provide desktop training on demand throughout an organization. The system should scale in a linear fashion and demonstrate superior price/performance ratios as more users are added.
A bundled software/hardware solution minimizes the time between purchase of the training system and return on investment.
The training system should include software controls for all administration functions in addition to providing detailed user statistics. Optional billing support should also be available. All tracking and administration controls should be implemented through a single user interface that works seamlessly with existing desktop operating systems to minimize learning time and avoid compatibility issues.

4. References

[1] McAteer, P. F. (1994). Harnessing the power of technology. Training & Development, August.

[2] Gephart, M. A. (1995). The road to high performance. Training & Development, June.

[3] Dove, L. (1996). PC as teacher now a reality. Computing Canada, 21(20).

[4] McKean, K. J. (1995). What is this thing called Accelerated Learning? Training & Development, June.

[5] Dove, L. (1996). PC as teacher now a reality. Computing Canada, 21(20).

[6] Jughes, J. R. (1996). Acting as tutor and mentor. Computing Canada, 21(20).

[7] Garcia, Y. (1995). Multimedia in the future: A study using multimedia in business communication. Unpublished thesis, Executive MBA program, Concordia University.

[8] Jackson, M. A. (1995). Try multimedia for full effect. Computing Canada, 21(20).

[9] McKean, K. J. (1995). What is this thing called Accelerated Learning? Training & Development, June.

[10] Garcia, Y. (1995). Multimedia in the future: A study using multimedia in business communication. Unpublished thesis, Executive MBA program, Concordia University.

[11] Grace, T. (1995). SHL puts training to the test: integrator's study shows advantage goes to computer-based versus classroom education. Computer Reseller News, 646.

[12] Jackson, M. A. (1995). Try multimedia for full effect. Computing Canada, 21(20).

[13] Jughes, J. R. (1996). Acting as tutor and mentor. Computing Canada, 21(20).

[14] Reich, R. (1990). Training in business. Harvard Business Review, January/February.

[15] Geis, G. (1991). As Training Moves Toward The Next Decade. Ontario Training Corporation.

[16] Conference Board of Canada (1990). Training and development 1990: Expenditures and policies (Report 67-91).

[17] Conference Board of Canada. (1991). Training and Development.

[18] Ichniowski, C. (1995). Human resource management systems and the performance of U.S. manufacturing businesses. National Bureau of Economics Research working paper 3449.

[19] The Globe & Mail Report On Business (1990). The Top 1000 Companies, July 1990, p.86

[20] Gherson, D. J., & Moore, C. A. (1987). The role of training in implementing strategic change. In L.S. May, C. A. Moore, & S. J. Zammit (eds.), Evaluating Business And Industry Training. Kluwar Academic Press.

[21] National Society for Performance and Instruction. (1995). News and Notes.

[22] Carnevale, A. P., & Schulz, E. R. (1990). Return on investment: Accounting for training. Training & Development, July.

[23] Goldstein, I. L. (1989). Critical training issues: Past, present, and future. In I.L. Goldstein (ed.), Training And Development In Organizations. Jossey-Bass.

[24] Muszynski, L., & Wolfe, D. A. (1989). New technology and training: Lessons from abroad. Canadian Public Policy, 15(3).

[25] Geis, G. (1991). As Training Moves Toward The Next Decade. Ontario Training Corporation.

[26] Doherty, K., & Allen, S. (1995). Electronic Support Online Help System. Paper presented at the 17th Annual Conference On Interactive Systems For Training, Education, And Job Performance Improvement.

[27] Geis, G. (1991). As Training Moves Toward The Next Decade. Ontario Training Corporation.

[28] Conference Board of Canada. (1991). Training and Development.

[29] Conference Board of Canada (1990). Training and development 1990: Expenditures and policies (Report 67-91).

[30] Bainbridge, S. V. (1995). You can't teach soft skills on a computer...can you? Paper presented at the 17th Annual Conference On Interactive Systems For Training, Education, And Job Performance Improvement.

[31] Rothstein, F. R. (1989). Continuing To Work: Issues In Training And Employment. National Association of Counties.

[32] Geis, G. (1991). As Training Moves Toward The Next Decade. Ontario Training Corporation.

[33] Jughes, J. R. (1996). Acting as tutor and mentor. Computing Canada, 21(20).

[34] Conference Board of Canada. (1991). Training and Development.

[35] Johnson, I. (1994). How fast is multimedia really catching on? Computer Dealer News, December 28.

[36] Conference Board of Canada. (1991). Training and Development.

[37] Head, G. E. (1985). Training Cost Analysis. Marlin Press.

[38] Head, G. E. (1985). Training Cost Analysis. Marlin Press.

[39] Jerram, P. (1994). Who's using multimedia? NewMedia, October.

[40] Trisram, C. (1995). Stream on: Video Servers. NewMedia, April.

[41] Piazza, D. (1995). L.A. Department of Water and Power: Power to the people. Multimedia Today, July-September.

[42] Filipczak, B. (1995). Putting the learning into distance learning. Training, October.

[43] Howard, B. (1995). Taking multimedia into production. Paper presented at the 17th Annual Conference On Interactive Systems For Training, Education, And Job-Performance Improvement.

[44] Piazza, D. (1995). Language labs serve up LAN video. Multimedia Today, July -September.

[45] Piazza, D. (1995). Language labs serve up LAN video. Multimedia Today, July -September.

[46] Miller, R. (1990). Learning benefits of interactive technologies. Videodisc Monitor, February.

[47] Garcia, Y. (1995). Multimedia in the future: A study using multimedia in business communication. Unpublished thesis, Executive MBA program, Concordia University.

[48] Filipczak, B. (1995). Putting the learning into distance learning. Training, October.

[49] Chichelli, J., & McMahon, C. (1995). Evaluating EPSS - Getting to the bottom line. Paper presented at the 17th Annual Conference On Interactive Systems For Training, Education, And Job Performance Improvement.

[50] Carnevale, A. P., & Schulz, E. R. (1990). Return on investment: Accounting for training. Training & Development, July.

[51] Garcia, Y. (1995). Multimedia in the future: A study using multimedia in business communication. Unpublished thesis, Executive MBA program, Concordia University.

[52] Garcia, Y. (1995). Multimedia in the future: A study using multimedia in business communication. Unpublished thesis, Executive MBA program, Concordia University.

[53] Waldman, D. (1995). Interactive multimedia: Measuring the ROI. Paper presented at the 17th Annual Conference On Interactive Systems For Training, Education, And Job Performance Improvement.

[54] Bainbridge, S. V. (1995). You can't teach soft skills on a computer...can you? Paper presented at the 17th Annual Conference On Interactive Systems For Training, Education, And Job Performance Improvement.

[55] Jerram, P. (1994). Who's using multimedia? NewMedia, October.

This white paper was researched and prepared in conjunction with Paul Cholmsky and Robert Gordon of The Article 19 Group.
 
 

Copyright © Alex Informatique SA France May 1998. All rights reserved.